VHDL 2019: Usability and APIs

Posted on 2020-06-18 by Bart Brosens

In this fourth and last article in our series about VHDL 2019, we discuss some smaller usability improvements. The new and improved APIs are also mentioned. You can read the third part here.

Usability

Aside from improving some of the core constructs of VHDL, it is also important to pay attention to the small, daily frustrations of digital design.

Conditional Expressions

Users have often missed a ternary operator in VHDL. For this version the working group has expanded the places where the when-else construct can be used:

  1. Inside expressions: y <= a xor b after (3 ns when FAST else 5 ns); The when-else-expression must be in parentheses.
  2. To initialize constants and attributes:
constant DELAY : time := 3 ns when FAST else 5 ns;
attribute RAM_STYLE of RegFile : signal is
  "distributed" when SMALL else "block";
  1. In return statements:
return when condition; -- only return when the condition is true
return a when condition else b;

Conditional analysis

A preprocessor was added to perform conditional compilation. The preprocessor has access to six predefined variables: VHDL_VERSION, TOOL_TYPE, TOOL_VENDOR, TOOL_NAME, TOOL_EDITION, TOOL_VERSION. The syntax for the preprocessor closely follows the VHDL syntax, for example:

`if TOOL_VENDOR = "SIGASI" then
  attribute dont_touch of sig1 : signal is "true";
`endif

These predefined variables are also available as regular VHDL constants on the package std.env, making them usable in regular expressions as follows:

if env.tool_type = "SIMULATION" then ... endif;

This allows designers to work around tool issues that can not be solved within the VHDL language. Libraries can now target multiple VHDL versions or multiple toolchains, offering features depending on the environment.

Sequential declaration regions

Allowing designers to declare constants and variables inside sequential regions was a frequently requested feature. For this a sequential block statement was added. In the following example we show an if statement inside a for statement. Each have blocks inside to allow for declarations. The block labels are optional.

p : process is
begin
  for i in some_vectorrange then
    b1 : block
      constant element : integer := some_vector(i);
    begin
      if element > CONST then
        b2 : block
          variable result : integer;
        begin
          some_procedure(element, result);
          report resultimage;
        end block b2;
      end if;
    end block b1;
  end for;
end process p;

In VHDL, variables can be synthesized in either combinatorial logic or registers, depending on how they are used. If the value of a variable is read in a clocked process, before it is written, the variable will result in a register. Sometimes, designers do this by mistake, leading to design errors. With sequential declarations this confusion is avoided: variables declared in a sequential declarative part will always be combinatorial logic.

p : process is
  variable combinatorial_or_register : unsigned(8 downto 0);
begin
  if rising_edge(clk) then
    b : block
      variable only_combinatorial : unsigned;
    begin
      ...
    end block b;
  end if;
end process p;

Bigger integer

The minimum size of integer has been increased from 32-bit to 64-bit.

For the implementation of physical types, 32-bit integers have become a limitation. For example, keeping time in nanoseconds for one hour requires 40 bits. Since most workstation processors support 64-bit calculations, evaluating 64-bit integers in simulation should not slow down simulations.

For hardware designs where the full 32-bit or 64-bit integer range is not required, it still makes sense to declare an integer subtype or to restrict the range when declaring a variable or signal.

Improved attributes

Objects now have direct access to the attributes of their type. This simplifies the use of many attributes.

Example: obtaining the string value of an object

report osubtypeimage(o); -- VHDL 2008
report oimage             -- VHDL 2019

All attributes were reviewed and many inconsistencies were resolved. For example, the image attribute is now available for records and arrays.

Attributes for PSL

PSL support was updated to the latest version (IEEE 1850-2010). In addition, it’s now possible to interact with PSL directives. There are two ways to do this.

Designers can interact with PSL directives using two attributes. The signal attribute is used to read the value of the PSL directive and the event attribute to detect that the PSL directive has completed in this simulation cycle.

Through new subprograms in the std.env package, the verification library can check if any PSL asserts have failed, check that all PSL objects were covered, reset the state of PSL objects and more.

New and improved APIs

Several APIs to interact with the operating system were updated or added.

File API

Four features were added to the std.textio API:

  • Files can now be opened in read_write_mode
  • You can determine if a file is still open using the file_state function
  • You can determine and modify the size of a file using the subprograms file_size and file_truncate
  • Random file access was added using the subprograms file_position, file_seek and file_rewind

File system API

In the package std.env several subprograms were added to interact with the file system.

  • Directories can be explored using the dir_open subprogram and the directory data type
  • Files and directories can be created and deleted
procedure       DIR_OPEN(Dir : out DIRECTORY; Path : in STRING; Status : out DIR_OPEN_STATUS);
impure function DIR_OPEN(Dir : out DIRECTORY; Path : in STRING) return DIR_OPEN_STATUS;
procedure       DIR_CLOSE(Dir : in DIRECTORY);

type DIRECTORY is record
  Name      : LINE;             -- current directory name; resolved to its canonical form
  Items     : DIRECTORY_ITEMS;  -- list of pointers to directory item names
end record;
-- The predefined operations for this type are as follows:
-- function "="(anonymous, anonymous: DIRECTORY) return BOOLEAN;
-- function "/="(anonymous, anonymous: DIRECTORY) return BOOLEAN;

procedure       DIR_CREATEDIR(Path : in STRING; Status : out DIR_CREATE_STATUS);
procedure       DIR_CREATEDIR(Path : in STRING; Parents : in BOOLEAN; Status : out DIR_CREATE_STATUS);
impure function DIR_CREATEDIR(Path : in STRING; Parents : in BOOLEAN := FALSE) return DIR_CREATE_STATUS;
procedure       DIR_DELETEDIR(Path : in STRING; Status : out DIR_DELETE_STATUS);
procedure       DIR_DELETEDIR(Path : in STRING; Recursive : in BOOLEAN; Status : out DIR_DELETE_STATUS);
impure function DIR_DELETEDIR(Path : in STRING; Recursive : in BOOLEAN := FALSE) return DIR_DELETE_STATUS;
procedure       DIR_DELETEFILE(Path : in STRING; Status : out FILE_DELETE_STATUS);
impure function DIR_DELETEFILE(Path : in STRING) return FILE_DELETE_STATUS;

Date & time API

The date and time API was added to the std.env package. It has the following features:

  • The ability to query the time since EPOCH as a real
  • The ability to query time as a time_record record, using either the local timezone or UTC
  • A minimal API to increment and decrement time_record objects
  • The ability to pretty print time using to_string
type time_record is record
  microsecond : integer range 0 to 999_999
  second      : integer range 0 to  61;
  minute      : integer range 0 to  59;
  hour        : integer range 0 to  23;
  day         : integer range 1 to  31;
  month       : integer range 0 to  11;
  year        : integer range 1 to  4095;
  weekday     : dayofweek;
  dayofyear   : integer range 0 to 365;
end record time_record;

Environment variables

A minimal API to query environment variables was added to std.env.

APIs for library builders

Introspection

The introspection API allows users to inspect arbitrary data types. This feature is oriented towards verification libraries and not intended for RTL.

Introspection consists of two parts: attributes to convert any object into a generic mirror object and a library std.reflect that can be used to inspect mirror values and types. The API offers a type-safe method to inspect values at runtime.

The most common use case for introspection is to convert arbitrary values into a known type. For example: converting a VHDL value into a string representation, writing it to a file in the JSON format or flattening any record into a std_logic_vector.

The introspection API is based on the mirror-based reflection research by Gilad Bracha 4. This is a proven approach that has been used in many other languages 5 6. In this initial release it is not possible to create or modify values, in a future revision this functionality could be added.

Asserts

This API is similar to the new PSL API. You can check how many asserts have failed, modify the failure messages, clear assertion results and much more.

This API is vital for verification libraries. The subprograms were added to the package std.env.

Call path

Two additions were made to provide better debug information to the users of verification libraries.

The API provides functions to retrieve the file name, file path and line in the current VHDL file. Another set of subprograms and types can be used to retrieve and inspect call path, also called stack traces.

Conclusion

These four articles on the new VHDL 2019 standard try to cover the most substantial improvements of VHDL 2019. This new standard brings big improvements to both RTL and verification. Interfaces were added, generic types were improved and the language is more streamlined. The new version also increases support and available tools for verification libraries designers.

The result should breathe new life into the VHDL community. The revision was balloted and released in 2019. The finished proposals are publicly available on the VHDL working group wiki 7.

The IEEE and STD packages have been open sourced and are publicly available on https://opensource.ieee.org/vasg/Packages.

Acknowledgements

This series of articles was based on Lieven’s paper at DVCON 2018.

References

[4] G. Bracha, D. Ungar, “Mirrors: design principles for meta-level facilities of object-oriented programming languages” In procedings of the 2004 ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Object-Oriented Programming Systems, Languages, and Applications, pp. 331-344, ACM, New York (2004)
[5] “Reflection in Dart with Mirrors”
[6] “Mirror C++ reflection utilities”
[7] “VHDL2017 proposals”

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